Specialty Surgery

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Breast Surgery


Breast Cancer

  • Second only to skin cancer, it is the most common cancer in American women.
  • The average risk of a woman in the US developing breast cancer in her lifetime is 12.5% or 1 out of 8 women.
  • Breast cancer usually begins either in the cells of the lobules which are milk producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple.
  • Noninvasive or in situ breast cancer is when cancer cells stay within the milk ducts or lobules of the breast.
  • Invasive breast cancer is when cancer cells invade the lobules or milk ducts of the breast.
  • Benign breast changes that increase the risk of breast cancer:
    • Proliferative disease without atypia (usual hyperplasia) results in a two-fold increase of developing cancer.
    • Atypical hyperplasia results in a four-fold increase of developing cancer.

Common Treatments for Breast Cancer

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy

Surgery

  • Partial mastectomy: the removal of the cancer with a small area of surrounding normal tissue
    • +/- Preoperative needle localization: the marking of the cancerous area of the breast with a thin wire by the radiologist prior to surgery when the cancerous area cannot be felt on exam.
    • +/- Sentinel node biopsy: the removal of the first few lymph nodes draining the breast in the underarm region marked by a dye administered to the breast prior to surgery.
    • +/- Axillary node dissection: the removal of level I and II lymph nodes in the underarm region.
  • Simple mastectomy: the removal of the breast including skin, areola and nipple.
    • +/- Sentinel node biopsy: the removal of the first few lymph nodes draining the breast in the underarm region marked by a dye administered to the breast prior to surgery.
    • +/- Axillary node dissection: the removal of level I and II lymph nodes in the underarm region.
  • Modified Radical Mastectomy: the removal of the breast with removal of Level I and II lymph nodes from the underarm region.